The condenser is one of the important equipment in the refrigeration system. It transfers the heat of the superheated refrigerant vapor to the surrounding air or water through the exothermic surface of the condenser. The condenser itself is cooled into saturated vapor and further cooled into high-pressure liquid for recycling in the system. The working principle and structure of common condenser are introduced below.
1. Horizontal shell and tube condenser. The refrigerant vapor condenses on the outer surface of the pipe, and the cooling water flows in the pipe under the action of the pump. Refrigerant vapor from the upper intake pipe into the people, after condensing into liquid from the lower tube of the liquid outlet pipe flow into the liquid reservoir. Both ends of the cylinder of the condenser are sealed with end caps， and the multi-pipe flow of cooling water is realized with a water separator inside the end caps. The e number of tube bundles of the condenser is even, so that the inlet and outlet of the cooling water can be placed on the same end cover, and the cooling water can be input and output from the top.
Structure of horizontal shell and tube condenser
1 -- vent pipe connection 2 -- pressure gauge connection 3 -- safety valve connection 4 -- equalizing pipe connection 5 -- inlet pipe connection 6 -- vent pipe cold connection 7 -- drain cock connection 8 -- outlet pipe connection 9 -- drain pipe connection
2. Vertical shell and tube condenser is installed vertically with no end cap at both ends. The refrigerant vapor enters the outer tube space in the cylinder from the upper inlet pipe in the central part of the condenser shell. The condensed liquid flows down the outer wall of the tube and collects at the bottom of the condenser, and enters the liquid storage device through the outlet pipe. The cooling water is fed into the heat exchange pipe of the condenser from the upper part and flows down along the wall of the pipe in a film-like manner to drain into the pool below the condenser for recycling.
Structure drawing of vertical shell and tube condenser
1 outlet connection 2 -- pressure gauge connection 3 -- inlet connection 4 -- clamp 5 -- safety valve connection 6 -- pressure equalizer connection 7 -- vent connection 8 -- drain connection 9 -- nozzle 10 -- tube plate
3. Casing condenser
The casing condenser is made of two different sizes of tubes, single or multiple tubes of small diameter are sleeved in large diameter tubes； and then wound into the shape of snake or oyster, as shown in the circumference of 2-98. The refrigerant vapor enters the cavity between the inner tube and the outer tube from above and condenses on the outer surface of the inner tube.
The liquid flows down from the bottom of the outer tube to the liquid reservoir. The cooling water enters from the lower part of the condenser and flows out from the upper part of each inner tube successively. The cooling water flow of the bushing condenser is long. The refrigerant is heated by the cooling water and cooled by the air outside the pipe. The heat transfer effect is good.
Casing condenser structure
4. Spiral plate condenser. The spiral plate condenser is composed of two spirals plus a cap and a pipe. Two spirals form two helical channels. Two kinds of fluids flow countercurrent in the channel. One fluid flows in from the center of the helix and out from the periphery. The spiral structure makes the inside difficult to clean and overhaul.
Spiral plate condenser structure
5、Plate condenser plate condenser consists of a series of laminated metal plates with a certain corrugated shape. A number of small cross-section passages are formed between the plates, through which the refrigerant and the soft coolant conduct heat transfer.
Structure drawing of plate condenser
6、Spiral baffle condenser. Piao spiral baffle plate condenser in spiral main body by the spiral baffle plate and choke plate apex Angle of lap. The spiral baffle is fixed by the distance tube, and the condenser tube passes through the spiral baffle one by one. Each baffle plate has a certain Angle with the axis of the shell, and the adjacent baffle plate is connected end to end in the periphery, so that its outer circle forms a continuous spiral line. This device changes the flow state of shell side fluid, thus improving the heat transfer efficiency of shell side fluid and reducing the pressure drop of shell side fluid.