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The working principle and structure of common condensers

2018-10-31 10:56

  CondenserIt is one of the important equipment in the refrigeration system. It transfers the heat of the refrigerant superheated vapor to the surrounding air or water through the heat release surface of the condenser. It is cooled to saturated vapor and further cooled to high-pressure liquid. Circulate in the system. The working principle and structure of common condensers are introduced below.

1. Horizontal shell and tube condenser. The refrigerant vapor condenses on the outer surface of the tube, and the cooling water flows in the tube under the action of the pump. Refrigerant vapor enters the reservoir from the upper inlet pipe, condenses into liquid, and flows into the reservoir from the outlet pipe at the lower part of the cylinder. The two ends of the cylinder of the condenser are sealed with end caps, and the water dividing plate is used in the end cap to realize the multi-pipe flow of cooling water. The number of tube bundles of the condenser is an even number, so that the inlet and outlet of the cooling water can be arranged on the same end cover, and the inlet and outlet of the cooling water can be arranged on the same end cover.

  

常见冷凝器的工作原理及构造

 

Structure

Structure of horizontal shell and tube condenser

1-vent pipe joint 2-pressure gauge joint 3-safety general joint 4-pressure equaliser joint 5-inlet pipe joint 6-vent cyclone cold joint 7-drain cock joint 8-liquid discharge pipe joint 9-oil drain pipe joint

2. The vertical shell and tube condenser is installed upright without end caps at both ends. The refrigerant vapor enters the outer space of the tube in the cylinder from the intake pipe above the middle of the condenser shell. The condensed liquid flows from top to bottom along the outer wall of the tube, gathers at the bottom of the condenser, and enters the liquid reservoir through the liquid outlet pipe. The cooling water enters the heat exchange tube of the condenser from the upper part, flows down along the tube wall in a film shape, and is discharged into the pool below the condenser for recycling.

Vertical shell and tube condenser structure diagram

  

常见冷凝器的工作原理及构造

 

1-outlet pipe joint 2-pressure gauge joint 3-inlet pipe joint 4-water distribution clamp 5-safety valve joint 6-pressure equ1 sound joint 7-air release pipe joint 8-oil release pipe joint 9-guide pipe nozzle 10-tube plate

3. Sleeve type condenser

The casing condenser is made of two kinds of pipes with different diameters. A single or multiple small-diameter pipes are sleeved in a large-diameter pipe, and then wound into a serpentine or oyster shape, as shown in Wai 2-98. The vapor of the refrigerant enters the cavity between the inner and outer tubes from above and condenses on the outer surface of the inner tube,

The liquid flows down in turn at the bottom of the outer tube and flows into the reservoir from the lower end. The cooling water enters from the bottom of the condenser, flows out from the upper part through each row of inner pipes in turn, and flows in a countercurrent manner with the refrigerant. The cooling water flow of the double pipe condenser is long. While the refrigerant is absorbed by the cooling water, it is also cooled by the air outside the tube, and the heat transfer effect is good.

  

常见冷凝器的工作原理及构造

 

Structure of sleeve condenser

4. Spiral plate condenser. The spiral plate condenser is composed of two spiral bodies, a top cover and a connecting pipe. The two spirals form two spiral channels in which two fluids flow counter-current, one fluid flows from the center of the spiral and flows out from the periphery, and the other fluid flows from the periphery and flows out from the center. The spiral structure makes the internal cleaning and maintenance difficult.

  

常见冷凝器的工作原理及构造

 

Spiral plate condenser structure

5. Plate condenser The plate condenser is formed by stacking a series of metal plates with a certain corrugated shape. A number of small flow sections are formed between the plates, and the refrigerant and the soft refrigerant exchange heat through the plates.

  

常见冷凝器的工作原理及构造

 

Structure diagram of plate condenser

6. Spiral baffle condenser. The spiral body in the spiral baffle condenser consists of the overlapping of the spiral baffle and the top angle of the baffle. The spiral baffle plate is fixed by the fixed distance tube, the condenser tube passes through the spiral baffle plate one by one, and the spiral baffle plate and the tube plate together serve as the support of the condenser tube bundle. The spiral baffle is fan-shaped, each baffle forms a certain angle with the axis of the shell, and the adjacent baffles are connected end to end on the periphery, so that the outer circle forms a continuous spiral line. This device method changes The flow state of the shell-side fluid improves the shell-side heat transfer efficiency and reduces the shell-side fluid pressure drop.

  

常见冷凝器的工作原理及构造